Sanada Masayuki, warlord of Shinano (Nagano Pref.), started the construction of Ueda Castle on the riverbank cliffs of the Chikuma River around 1583 and completed it the following year. Sanada made a name for himself by repelling Tokugawa Ieyasu’s siege of Ueda in 1585. On becoming a subordinate of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, large-scale renovation work was carried out, creating a luxurious castle with gorgeous gold-leaf roof tiles. The Sanada again repelled an attack on Ueda by Tokugawa Ieyasu’s son Hidetada in 1600 while en route to the Battle of Sekigahara. After the battle, the sturdy castle was destroyed, but restored in 1626 when Sengoku Tadamasa became the master of Ueda. In 1967, the northeast and southeast watchtowers, which had been sold privately, were returned to the castle. Ueda’s main east gate was restored in 1994 based on old photos and excavation results.